Algerian Journal of Engineering and Technology <p>Algerian Journal of Engineering and Technology (AJET) is an international scholarly refereed research journal which aims to promote the theory and practice of technology, innovation, and engineering.</p> Faculty of Technology, University of El Oued, Algeria. en-US Algerian Journal of Engineering and Technology 2716-9227 Sand Dunes Reviewing: Wind Effect and Dunes Classification <p>Drylands are distributed in many parts of the world. The combined effects of land mismanagement, unsustainable use of water, and climate change have caused the transformation of many areas into drylands, and as a result, increase desert areas and the formation of aeolian sand dunes. Due to the increase in construction activities in drylands areas, more descriptions of the formation of soils in aired zones, the effect of wind erosion on these soils, and their classification and movement are required so as to assess their effect on such activities. This paper described the wind action on aeolian dunes, it's reviewed the occurrence, movement, and classification of dunes. The effect of direction and intensity of the wind on the length, height, and location of dunes was presented. The saltation, suspension, and creep movements of sand grains were discussed. The challenges of the classification of the sand dunes were, also, included as a part of this review. It was found that there is a significant effect of the dune morphology on sediment movement and "wind flow lines". The determination of dune morphology is related to many interdependent factors, the assessment of these factors is difficult. Due to their varying sizes and shapes, sand dunes classification was found to be a challenging.</p> Zainab Altameemi Abbas Al-Taie Copyright (c) 2022 Zainab Altameemi, Abbas Al-Taie 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 7 1 8 Empirical Assessment of Mixed Traffic Congestion on Selected Arterials in an Urban Metropolis, Nigeria <p>The study was aimed at investigating the appropriateness and development of congestion indices and predictive model with operational parameters for congestion on the roads of a developing city. A manual 12-hour (6.00 am- 6.00 pm) traffic count was conducted for seven consecutive days of the week and converted to passenger car units (pcu) on Gboko, Iorchia Ayu, Otukpo, Joe Akaahan, Atom Kpera and Lafia roads of Markurdi to determine congestion spots. Five parameters of volume, headway, speed, density and delay were derived from the generated database in accordance with Highway Capacity Manual of 2010. Traffic congestion indices, with corresponding predictive models, were quantified, and a 15-year congestion forecast made to obtain the future operating scenarios on Makurdi roads. Makurdi roads were dominated by cars of 38.09-61.87%, motorcycles of 15.58-22.85%, minibuses of 10.63-31.33%, and tricycles, luxurious buses, lorries/trucks, trailers/tankers of 0.03-7.75%; with operating significant parameters at peak period of 2322-3134 pcu/h., 305-990 pcu/km., 1.7-2.2 s and 17-40 km/h for the volume, density, headway and speed, respectively; the degree of congestion on the selected routes were moderate to severe (volume capacity ratio of 0.51-1.32) and substantially dependent on the operating parameters, predictive model for the roadway traffic congestion index, <em>CI&nbsp; = 107.071+0.028v+10.054Sl +0.013c </em>with <em>R<sup>2</sup> = 0.97</em>, was generated with volume (v), segment length (Sl) and capacity (c); and a 15-year projection indicated that Joe Akaahan Road would be heavily congested. All other segments would be severely congested. The present and 15-year projected CI values were 1.83 and 3.77 respectively, indicating extra vehicle kilometer travel due to congestion of 377%. It is recommended that congestion indices and predictive model are useful tools for management of congestion on urban roads of a developing city.</p> Terseer Ako Ibrahim Tunde Yusuf Fwanshak Gaius Mije Copyright (c) 2022 Terseer Ako, Ibrahim Tunde Yusuf, Fwanshak Gaius Mije 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 7 9 18 Evaluation of rice milling quality and energy requirement via a developed vibratory rice grader <p>In the modern way of processing rice, rice is usually parboiled before milling operation and grading is one of the milling operations required to classify rice into different grades of importance viz. the head and broken rice. &nbsp;In this study, a vibratory rice grader was developed. The effect of processing conditions on the milling quality (milling recovery, head milled rice and broken rice), grading time, energy requirement and energy intensity were evaluated. The soaking time (4 – 6 h), steaming time (30 – 40 mins) and rice variety (FARO 15, FARO 60 and FARO 62) were interacted using Taguchi experimental design (L<sub>9</sub>3<sup>3</sup>). Standard equations were used to evaluate the effect of processing conditions on the milling quality, energy requirement and energy intensity of the rice grader. Milling recovery ranged from 53% to 70%, head milled rice (41% - 67%), broken milled rice (3% - 12%), grading time (4.4 – 5.8 mins), energy requirement (2.632 MJ to 2.649 MJ) and energy intensity (1.20 – 1.58 MJ/kg). An increase in soaking time and steaming time increased the grading time, milling recovery, head milled rice, energy requirement and energy intensity but reduced the broken milled rice.&nbsp; The estimated cost of the developed vibratory rice grader was $152. This study provides valuable information on a simple way of designing and developing a rice grader that could be adopted for grading rice into whole rice or head rice and broken rice.</p> Mayowa Saheed SANUSI Musiliu Olushola Sunmonu Jelili Babatunde Hussein Sodiq Ayinde Olaleye Ifeoluwa Benjamin Adedeji Ganiyu Oluwaseyi Hamzat Israel Tomiwa Popoola Copyright (c) 2022 Mayowa Saheed SANUSI , Musiliu Olushola Sunmonu, Jelili Babatunde Hussein, Sodiq Ayinde Olaleye, Ifeoluwa Benjamin Adedeji, Ganiyu Oluwaseyi Hamzat, Israel Tomiwa Popoola 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 7 19 26 Modeling and optimization of processing parameters of strips produced from blends of cassava and cowpea flour <p>Most Nigerian traditional foods have a low nutritional value, inconsistent sensory attributes, and short shelf life. Thus, upgrading becomes necessary for the technologies used in the processing, distributing, and storing of indigenous snack foods to improve the products' nutritional, sensory, and storage properties. A Box-Behnken (three-factor) response surface methodology was used to optimize the process. The effect of frying temperature (160 - 180°C), frying time (8 - 12 min) and percent cowpea flour (10 - 30%) on some attributes (moisture, fat, protein contents, texture, and color change) of cassava-cowpea strips fried snack. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and regression analysis. The moisture content ranged between 1.00% and 4.26%, fat content (8.41–11.94%), protein content (30.83–36.42%), texture (5.06–13.14 N) and color change (26.967–40.479). Frying temperature, frying time and % cowpea flour had a significant (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) effect on moisture, fat, protein contents, texture and color change of cassava-cowpea strips. The processing conditions affected moisture, fat, protein, texture, and color change. Coefficients of determination, R<sup>2</sup> were 0.87, 0.86, 0.79, 0.88 and 0.71, respectively. The best conditions for processing cassava-cowpea strips were 12 min frying time, 166.65 °C frying temperature, and 24.36% cowpea flour content. The desirability of optimization was 0.65. Therefore, composite flour from cassava and cowpea can be adopted or used to produce strips to prevent protein-energy malnutrition in the community.</p> James Abiodun Adeyanju Adekanmi Olusegun Abioye Grace Oluwatoyin Ogunlakin Olusegun Oyelade Deborah Adesina Abiola Oloyede Copyright (c) 2022 James Abiodun Adeyanju, Adekanmi Olusegun Abioye, Grace Oluwatoyin Ogunlakin, Olusegun Oyelade, Deborah Adesina, Abiola Oloyede 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 7 27 36 An investigation on the climate change and drought types in the Porsuk Stream Watershed, west of Turkey <p>Climate change is a major parameter affecting agriculture. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of climate change on agricultural and hydro-meteorological drought in the Porsuk Stream Watershed. In this study, drought analyses in the watershed had been conducted using the past (1970-2018) and future (2020-2100) climate data produced according to the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of the HadGEM2-ES model, with the help of Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), Standard Runoff Index (SRI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The analysis revealed that the watershed was located in a dry region, it was detected that agro-hydrological droughts were dominant, and a meteorologically normal climatic situation prevailed in the past. Sub-basin in the watershed where agricultural drought is experienced severely are Odunpazari, Alpu and Tepebasi, respectively. 1981, 1986, 1989, 2008, 2013, 2015 and 2018 years were arid, while the driest years are expected to be 2056, 2058, 2069, 2070, 2089, 2096, the wettest year is expected to be 2021. The Porsuk Stream Watershed inclines to be dry meteorologically and humid hydrologically in the future. From the point of agricultural drought, although there is a potential for a drought over time, it is detected that a normal climatic situation will prevail throughout the watershed. Compared to the reference (1970-2000) period, climate change will happen in the manner of temperature and precipitation increases in the future. As a result of the study, important data about drought were produced for farmers.</p> Çayan Alkan Fatih Konukcu Copyright (c) 2022 Çayan Alkan 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 7 37 46